Why were the names of cities written on the scale of radio receivers 26 декабря, 2021


Many boys and girls, now gray-haired, remember that quivering feeling when you slowly turn the tuning knob of a huge radio receiver and the red tuning arrow majestically floats past Berlin, Rome, London, Warsaw, Paris, Stockholm …

The entire scale was strewn with the names of cities, and there were a lot of foreign ones. We have never been able to listen to the radio of Rome or Paris at the indicated places. So why were the names of cities written on the scale then?

The establishment of radio broadcasting practically coincided with the First World War. The first private radio stations were listened to by rare fans of radio engineering, but gradually the equipment was improved and the number of those wishing began to grow exponentially. In the early 20s of the last century, Europe was only moving away from the last war, but a completely different situation was in the United States, where the economy was flourishing.

Many American firms began to produce the simplest radios. To increase demand for their products, they opened their own radio stations. In almost 2 years, 600 broadcasting licenses were issued in the United States. The power of the radio stations was low and covered only one city and its immediate surroundings.

By 1925, every fifth family already had a radio, and this is already a huge audience. Broadcasting has become a huge source of advertising revenue. Chaos was going on in the US radio air: radio stations interfered with each other, disrupting the frequencies and broadcasting power.

In 1928, the Federal Radio Commission issued new licenses to all radio stations, indicating the assigned frequency and power. Subsequently, many radio stations in the cities merged into broadcasting corporations (NBC Red, NBC Blue, CBS, Mutual).

The fashion to indicate on the scale of a radio station by the names of cities began precisely as a consequence of this event. Radio listeners liked it very much — it is so much easier to find your favorite radio station than to remember the frequency in kilohertz.

It was not easy to place such a huge list of cities on the scale.

Over the next 30 years, a huge scale with a long list of cities will become an indispensable attribute of a solid radio receiver.

Radio broadcasting in the USSR took a different path: in 1922, the most powerful radio station in the world was built, which made it possible to cover the entire territory of the USSR with radio broadcasting. Active construction of radio stations in large cities began in the 30s. By the beginning of World War II, there were already about a hundred radio stations in the country.

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A rare brother of the Ukrainian «dream» — «SPORT-304» 26 декабря, 2021


They brought in a very interesting retro radio for restoration. Of course, it would be much nicer to get a «sister», but this is on the verge of fantasy — there are so few of them left.

The Dnepropetrovsk Radio Plant was a very unique enterprise in the USSR. The whole country knew TVs

In 1961, the plant begins to produce transistor radios

Since 1964, the production of radios of two brands begins:


Since 1965, the plant has been mastering HF radio receivers.

It would seem, why would a radio receiver «

In the radio

To understand why such a huge body was needed, let’s take a look at the «sister» of the radio receiver

As they say in such cases: «Find the twelve differences.» There are only two external differences: a strange switch on the left of the front panel and a slightly thicker top cover

Thanks to this, the portable radio can be easily converted … … into a radio!

The mechanism of the electric playing device (EPU) is made very compact. The rotation from the electric motor is transmitted through a roller system.

For a long time I could not understand: how with such a small disk it is possible to provide a uniform rotation speed? A leather case with a handbag was attached to the radio. In this purse there was a special disc-stand with a diameter of 174 mm and a thickness of 2 mm. It was recommended to put it under the gramophone record. The disc’s weight of 370 grams was enough to ensure uniform rotation at all speeds.

Considering that the early 70s is the era of the reign of vinyl discs, a portable compact radio really «

The radio receiver circuit is practically typical, on nine germanium transistors. It does not have any special outstanding characteristics, but it pulls out for an honest 3rd class.

Such is the amazing apparatus half a century ago.

Take a look at

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What brand of radio clock «Signora Robinson»? 26 декабря, 2021


Wonderful Italian comedy

Miniature radios were not surprising to us. Micro-receivers have been produced in the USSR since 1965

Detailed descriptions of homemade micro-receivers were constantly printed in magazines.

There were also glasses-radio sets (Radio, 1972)

and radio receiver-pen

and even in the bow of the headphones! Lefty-worthy design

Most often, homemade microradios were assembled in a matchbox: easy to assemble and compact in size. If the body of the receiver will wear out over time, it is not a problem to move the radio receiver into a new box.

What amazed us then with Signor Robinson’s radio? First of all, with its loud sound. Miniature speakers of this size were not available in the USSR. Homemade sounded quiet and distorted. Well, and the second question: from what battery is the power supply of the radio receiver made — with such a volume, it should quickly discharge any battery.

There were no Yandex-schmandexes then and we could only envy the Italian radio industry. Now that is a completely different matter, any information can be unearthed, just don’t be lazy.

It turns out that this radio is not made in Italy, but in Hong Kong. Firm

The site of the radio museum claims that the receiver was powered by a single AA battery. I could not find the battery holder in the photo.

The handle on the left is just the battery compartment cover. Most likely there was a «pill» type battery.



The sound quality can be assessed in the video:

With the brand of the radio sorted out. Here is who will tell you the brand of the TV «Signora Robinson»

Look back in

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Why was the pocket radio receivers were luxury? 26 декабря, 2021


Today it is difficult to imagine that these small and pretty receivers with harsh sound were sold on a fantastic price. Few who could afford such a luxury. In order to be clearer, I will say at current prices: 50 thousand rubles cost a medium pocket radio.

The class of miniature receivers, called «Pocket», appeared very late-in the mid-50s. Such miniaturization has become possible due to the invention of a new amplifying device -Transistor.

The theory of semiconductor devices was removed with errors. Attempts to get a working device every time fails. It is not known how much scientists would have spent still spent if it were not for an error when connecting the crystal studied: inattentive

The invention of the new amplifying device was first reported by the military, such were the rules of those years. Military specialists, having studied all the possibilities of the device, gave conclusion: «The transistor of practical value does not represent, and the use is possible perhaps in the hearing aids.» This conclusion helped the transistor to avoid the grid «secret» and the license was sold to the production of civilian radio equipment.

In 1948.

For almost 6 years, it went to create the production of transistors with more or less acceptable characteristics, but no manufacturer wanted to make even experimental samples of equipment on them.

The scheme of the first radio had to be developed by engineers of the manufacturer of transistors- Texas Instruments

For the receiver’s work required a minimum

There was no promised attack demand, although the price for the radio was only slightly higher than the cost:

One good: The emergence of a new product on the sales market spurred large manufacturers to release similar equipment. Almost a year ago, the brainchild of the company appeared on sale

Given the shortcomings of pioneers, radio

Not left aside and another monster of American radio industry- firm


Giant American electric and radio industry

It would seem that eco-unprecedented 50 or 80 bucks, which is so amazing here. For comparison, you can see prices of lamp equipment for those years. The radio receiver is very popular with Americans

Well, if we turn to the dollar inflation calculator, then a completely fantastic picture will open:

The point is not in the greed of manufacturers, but in the high cost of transistors. The cost of manufacturing transistors then was about $ 8, while the radiologist accounted for only one dollar.

The first transistor receivers in other countries were not cheaper. Here is the advertising avenue of the Japanese Sony

European flagship

Circuit decision firstborn

Well, what about the cases in the USSR? Here we can fully proud of our engineers. Although we were late with the release of a transistor radio for two years, but they released a revolutionary model «Satellite» immediately

Radio receiver on seven transistors

The radio was sold at a price of 514 rubles. For comparison: the most massive tube radio of those years,

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Why did the «climber» loved so much in the USSR 26 декабря, 2021


Although the territory is predominantly flat in the USSR, but the people loved the radio with the «mountain» title, making them the most massive in production. Folk love for radio

To understand the advantage of such «middling» of portable equipment, we will spend a small excursion in history.

Since the emergence of broadcasting in the 20s and up to 50s, stationary lamp beauties dominated in the market of radio receivers

Mobile radio receivers were produced, and every year everything is compact and better, but they did not use high demand. For power supply, the radiolamp required two massive batteries: powerful and high voltage on the anode chains.

To carry such gravity was inconvenient, and often change the batteries also ruin.

The situation has changed with the advent of transistors. Compact and economical semiconductor devices first practically spoke the head of engineers is the same prospects for miniaturization of radio receivers !!! Worldwide went fashion on pocket transistor radio receivers.

The miniaturization euphoria passed quickly: the smaller the radio, the worse the sound of his little dynamics. Some of the buyers were ready to accept this disadvantage in favor of compactness, but the other part chose the best sound, even in the body of large sizes. So historically formed two directions for the development of portable radio receivers.

In 1958, the Leningrad Institute of Acoustics (NIIRP them. Popov) conducts a study of various combinations of schemes, speakers and buildings. As a result, the optimal radio scheme for 7 transistors was selected. During the year, a production equipment was created for mass production. In 1959, simultaneously on two radiosports, Voronezh and Leningrad, the production of radio receivers begins

The power supply of radio receivers was carried out from two CBS batteries fixed on the back wall

Curious Fact: Transistor Radio

To meet huge demand for


A year later, in 1964, Radios of Voronezh and Grozny moved to the release of the model

At the end of the 60s, fashion began on the national brands of radio equipment and after the next modernization were released in Grozny

At the beginning of the 70s, the radiation of the radio has again conducted. The buyer has no longer satisfied the low power of the radio amplifier, but a simple replacement to a more powerful amplifier could not be solved the problem. It’s all about the power supply batteries, they need to save. Designers managed to solve this problem with «low blood»: the power of the amplifier rose almost twice with a minor increase in rest current. The receiver received a better speaker of 0.5 GD-31.

The resulting radio, under the brand

In 1975, with the next modernization, the layout of the radio receiver radically changed: all controls and the scale were put on the upper wall. Only speaker remained on the front wall. Due to this, it was possible to noticeably improve the acoustics of the receiver. The model was named

The newly appreciated the car enthusiasts of the country: such a layout makes it easy to place a radio receiver under the «torpedo» -dactually ordinary brackets made of metal strips

And few people bombed the manufacture of stabilizer

9 volts voltage. Then the batteries on the car were with open jumpers and connect to the 5th labor bank did not constitute, and then any choke and smoothing capacitor.

Another interesting fact: On the eve of the Olympiad-80, all the radio receivers were forced to produce with the emblem of the Olympic Games, and this raised the price of 3-5 rubles. For «Alpinist-407» began to cast a special case with the emblem, but the price remained the same.

In 1980, the factories moved to the release of two new models

In 1984, the class of complexity of all receivers increased by one unit and the model began to produce as

The release of these radio receivers continued until the collapse of the USSR. There, for all radio facilities, difficult times came.

There was an attempt to escape into the class of overgrowth radio

In 1993, released a model

Latest in forty years old

The economic situation of one of the flagships of the USSR radio industry, the Voronezh radiosprot, has deteriorated every year and in 2005 the plant went bankrupt.

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The «Ocean» radio receiver now fits in such a box 26 декабря, 2021


The dimensions of the box are less than two centimeters even, only 17mm x17mm. It accommodates a full-fledged all-wave radio receiver and, most importantly, with a traditional tuning unit-KPE (variable capacitor).

I have more than once laid out photo reports of alterations of old Soviet radios for the modern VHF range. I also installed an MP3 player from a flash drive or memory card, bluetooth modules many times.

These modules are great for everyone.

Only they have one drawback: they do not have a radio wave tuning knob, as on old radios. The control is carried out by pressing buttons or from the remote control, so the module has to be cut into the case, spoiling the appearance of the old radio receiver.

Modules with a size smaller than the little finger have recently appeared

Alas, their controls are also on the buttons.

Today, having seen the new design of the module, I thought that they are selling an ordinary variable capacitor.

But it turned out that this is an all-wave (SV, HF, VHF) radio receiver on a microboard

In order not to be unfounded, let’s look at the characteristics:

Such is the miracle module. Judging by the additional descriptions, the module was created for manufacturers of pocket radios in order to reduce the electronics to the size of a KPI.

In order to revive the old DV-SV radio receiver, you only need to install this module instead of the native KPE unit (circled in yellow)

This will use the native vernier mechanism to tune the radio. The connection diagram is very simple:

Judging by the reviews of those who bought it, the module has quite good sensitivity in the VHF range. I could not resist, I ordered this module. They promise to deliver in early November. I have a rare radio-designer «Yunost» 1967 — here we will install this module into it.

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A small module revived the huge «Leningrad-006-stereo» 26 декабря, 2021


So the child of the Soviet radio industry of the highest class began to sing in a full voice. Let me remind you that the radio was made in 1979, but even 42 years later it sounds just as great.

As soon as I got this radio, I began to collect information on its restoration, so as not to step on the rake of my predecessors in this field a second time.

The LW range is definitely not needed anymore, but on the SV I would also like to drive the morning broadcast — at this time, due to the activity of the ionosphere, very distant radio stations are heard. But in the city there is no point in doing this, interference, and leaving for the dacha only next spring. The HF band is now quite boring: the Western «Voices» no longer see us as an ideological force and have closed their propaganda radio stations. All that remains is to listen to VHF broadcasting, which is no longer in the Soviet range (66-73 MHz).

To do this, first of all, you need to redo the VHF module. The scheme is already on the Internet:

With due care and attention, after such a revision, the VHF module will work in the modern range of 88-108 MHz. Here’s further from the series «how lucky.» There are many complaints that automatic frequency control (AFC) often loses the signal, and there are also frequent complaints about uneven sensitivity over the range: some radio stations catch perfectly, and some with noises, even the antenna does not help. It is also recommended to check the IF filter settings with devices. Well, the stereo decoder module can simply be thrown away — there is no sense in it.

Unfortunately, now there is no time to do all this with high quality, but I don’t want to do it «and it will do it that way.» Therefore, I immediately remembered about an interesting VHF radio receiver board from the Middle Kingdom, a kind

I was impressed by the excellent sensitivity and pleasant sound. So I decided to put it in «Leningrad» and from this module send a signal directly to the input of the amplifier.

To power this VHF module, you need a voltage of 3.7 V to 6 V. We have 12 volts in the radio receiver, so I immediately put a 5 Volt stabilizer on the module (KRENKA).

He also did not stand on ceremony with the location: on the radio receiver, the racks of the buttons of the UPCH-AM-CHM unit crumbled. I don’t need this module and I just removed the panel of these buttons, and the P2K switches themselves do not interfere.

Made a new panel from black plastic already for the Chinese VHF module.

I had to fight with the pairing of the VHF module with the amplifier of «Leningrad». The module sounded very nice on the headphones, but when the signal was fed to the amplifier, the sound changed. Having done some magic, I found out that the module definitely needs a load for high-quality sound. It was not possible to deceive by replacing the headphones with a resistor of similar resistance. There are good old headphones — I cut off a half from there and soldered to the board — the sound quality returned.

Replaced all electrolytic capacitors on the power supply and on the low frequency amplifier. Everything was weird, until I accidentally noticed that one of the new capacitors had blown up strangely. According to the diagram, this is a power supply filter on the ULF board. There was a 500 uF capacitor for 16 volts, and I put 2000 uF for 16 volts.

I had to urgently replace it, only 1000x50V was available. I already, by a sinful deed, begin to suspect that the Armenian manufacturers of capacitors have moved to China …

At the input of the amplifier, there is a rather complex circuit of loudness and filters.

To be honest, I have not completely defeated this scheme: at the lowest volume, incomprehensible distortions begin with the loss of the low-frequency component. It is worth adding a little volume, everything is normalized.

I could not resist the temptation and made a green illumination of the DV-SV scale. I was looking for a tape with yellow LEDs — not available, but with green LEDs I have been lying for a long time. So I kneaded two stripes — it turned out to be a very uniform and pleasant illumination of the scale. It will be necessary to make a separate box for the second scale.

Friends generally advised to make the backlight from an addressable LED strip — here and whatever color of the backlight you want, you can easily make it work in the spectrum analyzer mode (2 scales are 7 separate windows). It is even possible to transfer such a tape to the color music mode.

The most pleasant surprise was when I closed the back cover of the receiver — the sound became noticeably juicier. All the same, an excellent radio receiver was made by the guys from the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Radio Reception and Acoustics (VNIRPA).

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Why was Shpak slipped into bad foreign tape recorders? 26 декабря, 2021


Well, who does not remember this famous: «Everything that I gained by back-breaking labor, nevertheless died: they stole two tape recorders ….» and so on. I think each of us will accurately quote Shpak in part of the list of stolen goods.

According to the concept of the film, the neighbor of engineer Timofeev is a very rich man and his apartment is «full of bowl». Hence the very lucrative profession of dentist. With the requisites, personifying the wealth of the apartment, they decided simply: more imported things.

Here’s what a wealthy Soviet citizen would buy:

carpets, vases, figurines, paintings, antique furniture

As a well-known character said: «all the signs of bourgeois comfort.» To complete the picture and the technique in the apartment must be appropriate: a movie camera is required,

yes, not simple, but foreign:


though there was no foreign TV, we managed to do it with domestic

In contrast, the inventor, engineer Timofeev, was supplied with a modest black-and-white TV.

Ironically, 6 years earlier, this TV personified the wealth of a great Soviet official, comrade Saakhov, in the film «Prisoner of the Caucasus»


Well, we smoothly approached the main characters of the list of stolen goods — foreign tape recorders. The most «squeak» of the early 70s was to get a cassette recorder. In the USSR, they only began to be produced in 1969, and the foreign market was still far from saturation. So

Let’s say right away that cassette recorders of the late 60s differed little in sound quality from dictaphones, so this is far from a music lover’s dream.

However, the coolest cassette player had a significant drawback for the film: according to the script, the tape recorder turns on when Ivan the Terrible sits on it. At the tape recorder

That is why a second tape recorder appeared in the film, a reel-to-reel

The tape recorder is foreign and cool, but with what quality did it reproduce the music? The picture is very sad there. The tape recorder has two speeds: 9.52 cm / s and 4.76 cm / s. At a speed of 9.52 cm / sec, the reproducible frequency band is 120-8000 Hz, and at a lower speed, a pitiful 120-5000 Hz. To be clear, this is practically the speech quality on a wired phone.

For comparison: Soviet portable reel-to-reel tape recorder

The reason for such a low quality of the Japanese is in the most simplified scheme:

Due to this, production costs and sales prices are lower. So the cunning Japanese churned them out in millions, flooding the markets of Europe and America.

It turns out that the honest Soviet worker Shpak, earning a penny with back-breaking work, was deceived by speculators — radishes. They probably ripped off at least a triple price, for a foreign toy with dubious playback quality.

Look back in

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How did the neighbors put up with our apartment discos? 26 декабря, 2021


Looking at the current generation, hiding music in headphones, and looking at a smartphone without interruption, you understand: the days of collective fun, with dancing until you drop, and under zero hits have passed …

Moreover, this era appeared and passed practically in front of my generation.

For some reason we were drawn to the team all the time. Birthday celebration necessarily gathered friends, what calendar holidays, together again. It has been the custom since school years. We haven’t used anything intoxicating yet, but we set the table and dances to fashion hits.

In the 60s, almost all household equipment was produced under the slogan

Of course, equipment was produced with more powerful amplifiers, but only of the first and highest class. They cost much more and therefore were rare. Those who could afford such expensive equipment already preferred to listen to music quietly, «not for eighteen years now.»

The situation changed in the mid-70s. Already all the equipment was produced on transistors and on new models they began to install amplifiers of 4-6 watts. Among the tape recorders of the mass category, perhaps the first «loud» was the model

There was already something to jingle the dishes in the neighbors’ sideboards and swing the chandelier)

If previously there was no separate amplifier in home equipment, then from the mid-70s, the fashion for multicomponent home music centers slowly began.

Well, if the amplifier is equipped with good speakers, then the dishes shook even at the residents of the next entrance.

Well, the main milestone is that super-deficient THYRISTORS became available and COLOR MUSIC appeared in our apartments.

Our apartment equipment has become no worse than the club equipment, and even better in sound quality. How can you resist the temptation to listen to the next reel with new recordings, but at full volume … It’s a sin, I often indulged in it. How did the neighbors put up with this?

Then I didn’t even think about it. I even thought that I was doing a good job — I was giving all the neighbors new hits to listen to.

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Sly «Jung» of the USSR with a LED without electricity 26 декабря, 2021


When I took it in my hands, to my shame, I could not determine the brand of the radio. There are no names on the case. The seller at the consignment shop gave an oath of assurance that he was one of the many children’s radio designers in the USSR. Well, how to let go of such beauty, I bought it right there.

The search for a manufacturer on the Internet ended in nothing — well, not a single radio designer is suitable. Here is a search for «children’s pocket receiver of the USSR» turned out to be more successful: in the third dozen pictures I saw a familiar body: yes, it’s

At the Kuibyshev Instrument-Making Plant No. 5
(PO Box B-8169 enterprise) a children’s radio receiver began to be produced in 1974. The company is famous for its products for icebreakers and submarines. With such a focus of production, what name can be given to civilian, and even children’s products? Of course

The radio receiver circuit is assembled on 7 transistors and had good sensitivity. In this receiver, the creators managed to overcome the main disadvantages of children’s radios of those years:

Although the format is not pocket-sized, it turned out to be a radio receiver with excellent characteristics.

In 1976, the Leningrad Electromechanical Plant «Equality» was puzzled by the release of consumer goods (consumer goods). For these purposes, a new workshop was even built. The main products of the enterprise were ship radars, therefore the name for the civilian product was chosen

The radio was pleasing with its excellent appearance and a democratic price of 13 rubles.


Later, the radio receiver circuit was changed and the layout was altered.


Based on the dates on the details, the radio was released in 1989.

The world is full of mysteries and this radio is no exception: in the total mass of radio components in 1989, one capacitor from 1979 was worn in.

This capacitor is the same age as the beginning of the release of the receiver. Where did he run for 10 years? Soldering on the board is factory-interference excluded. Such is the mystery.

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